Gettysburg National Military Park Bird List

This list was certified in 2004 and is courtesy of Gettysburg National Military Park. A 1991 list is also available.

This list includes all the species that have been documented within Gettysburg National Military Park including East Cavalary Field, and the Eisenhower National Historical Site. Absence of a species from the list does not necessarily indicate its absence from the park, since it is possible that formal census techniques targeting rare, unique, cryptic or seasonally present species were not used. Species on the list are recorded using park-accepted scientific names that have been quality-checked and certified by subject-matter experts. The Occurrence field has also been reviewed and certified by experts.

Changes relative to 1991 list

The abundance and seasonality (including breeding status) of many species differs between the two lists.

Additions: Osprey, Laughing Gull, Spotted Sandpiper, Turkey, Cedar Waxwing, Fish Crow, Tree Swallow, Orange-crowned Warbler, Double-crested Cormorant, Yellow-crowned Night Heron
Deletions: Northern Bobwhite, Cattle Egret, Tricolored Heron, Rough-legged Hawk, Merlin, Herring Gull, Long-eared Owl, Eastern Whip-poor-will, Yellow-shafted Flycatcher (unidentified species; probably typo), Olive-sided Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Loggerhead Shrike, Northern Shrike, Bank Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Bewick’s Wren, American Pipit, Golden-winged Warbler, Prothonotary Warbler, Mourning Warbler, Yellow-breasted Chat, Summer Tanager, Blue Grosbeak, Dickcissel, Red Crossbill, Common Redpoll, Evening Grosbeak.


  • Ground - observed among leaf litter, fallen branches, grasses or weeds.
  • Understory - observed on the lower branches of trees and in tall shrubs.
  • Canopy - observed in the upper leaves of the tree or forest canopy.
  • Open - observed mainly in openings or open areas of woods.


  • Abundant - Seen daily in appropriate habitat/season; Large numbers
  • Common - Seen daily in appropriate habitat/season; Not in large numbers
  • Uncommon - Seen monthly in appropriate habitat/season; Locally common
  • Rare - Seen only a few times each year
  • Occasional - Seen every few years, but not every year

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Canada Goose Abundant Open areas Breeder Branta canadensis
Tundra Swan Uncommon Open areas Migratory Transient Cygnus columbianus; listed as Whistling Swan
Wood Duck Occasional Understory Unknown Aix sponsa
Mallard Rare Open areas Breeder Anas platyrhynchos

Pheasants, Turkeys, & Grouse

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Ring-necked Pheasant Occasional Open areas Unknown Phasianus colchicus
Wild Turkey Rare   Unknown Meleagris gallopavo
Ruffed Grouse Rare Understory Unknown No confirmatory sighting; Bonsa umbellus


Order: Suliformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Double-crested Cormorant Rare   Migratory Phalacrocorax auritus

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Ardeidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Great Blue Heron Occasional Open areas Unknown Ardea herodias
Great Egret Rare Open areas Breeder No confirmatory sighting; Ardea alba
Green Heron Occasional   Unknown Butorides virescens
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Occasional   Vagrant Nyctanassa violacea

New World Vultures

Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Cathartidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Black Vulture Common Open areas Breeder Coragyps atratus
Turkey Vulture Abundant Canopy Breeder Cathartes aura


Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Pandionidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Osprey Occasional   Unknown Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, Kites, and Eagles

Order: Accipitriformes. Family: Accipitridae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Northern Harrier Rare Open areas Unknown Circus cyaneus
Sharp-shinned Hawk Rare Open areas Unknown Accipiter striatus
Cooper’s Hawk Rare Open areas Breeder Accipiter cooperii
Red-shouldered Hawk Occasional Open areas Unknown Buteo lineatus
Broad-winged Hawk Rare Open areas Unknown Buteo platypterus
Red-tailed Hawk Common Open areas Breeder Buteo jamaicensis


Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
American Kestrel Uncommon Open areas Breeder Falco sparverius

Lapwings and Plovers

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Killdeer Rare Open areas Breeder Charadrius vociferus

Sandpipers, Curlews, Stints, Godwins, Snipes, and Phalaropes

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Solitary Sandpiper Unconfirmed     Tringa solitaria
Upland Sandpiper Occasional Open areas Migratory Transient Bartramia longicauda (C)
Wilson’s Snipe Occasional Open areas Resident Gallinago delicata
American Woodcock Occasional   breeder resident Scolopax minor

Gulls and Terns

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Laughing Gull Occasional   Migratory Leucophaeus atricilla
Ring-billed Gull Occasional Open areas Migratory Larus delawarensis

Pigeons and Doves

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Rock Dove Abundant Open areas Breeder Columba livia
Mourning Dove Abundant Open areas Breeder Zenaida macroura


Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Rare Open areas Unknown Coccyzus americanus
Black-billed Cuckoo Occasional Open areas Breeder Coccyzus erythropthalmus

Barn Owls

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Barn Owl Occasional Open areas Unknown Tyto alba

Typical Owls

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Eastern Screech-Owl Rare Canopy Breeder Megascops asio
Great Horned Owl Uncommon Open areas Breeder Bubo virginianus
Barred Owl Common Canopy Breeder Strix varia
Short-eared Owl Rare   Resident Asio flammeus
Northern Saw-whet Owl Rare Understory Unknown Aegolius acadicus


Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Common Nighthawk Occasional Open areas Unknown Chordeiles minor


Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Chimney Swift Common Open areas Breeder Chaetura pelagica


Order: Apodiformes. Family: Trochilidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Ocasional Open areas Breeder Archilochus colubris


Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Cerylidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Belted Kingfisher Occasional Open areas Breeder Megaceryle alcyon

Woodpeckers, Sapsuckers, and Flickers

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Red-headed Woodpecker Common Canopy Breeder Melanerpes erythrocephalus
Red-bellied Woodpecker Abundant Canopy Breeder Melanerpes carolinus
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Occasional Canopy Migratory Sphyrapicus varius
Downy Woodpecker Uncommon Canopy Breeder Picoides pubescens
Hairy Woodpecker Rare Canopy Breeder Picoides villosus
Northern Flicker Common Open areas Breeder Colaptes auratus
Pileated Woodpecker Rare Canopy Breeder Dryocopus pileatus

Tyrant Flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tyrannidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Eastern Wood-Pewee Abundant Canopy Breeder Contopus virens
Acadian Flycatcher Rare Understory Breeder Empidonax virescens
Willow Flycatcher Occasional Canopy Unknown This flycatcher has now been split into 2 species, the Alder and Willow flycatchers. Empidonax traillii.
Least Flycatcher Occasional Canopy Migratory Empidonax minimus
Eastern Phoebe Rare Canopy Breeder Sayornis phoebe
Great Crested Flycatcher Common Canopy Breeder Myiarchus crinitus
Eastern Kingbird Uncommon ? Breeder Tyrannus tyrannus


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Vireonidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
White-eyed Vireo Occasional Understory Breeder Vireo griseus
Yellow-throated Vireo Rare Open areas Breeder Vireo flavifrons
Blue-headed Vireo Occasional Canopy Breeder Vireo solitarius
Warbling Vireo Occasional Canopy Breeder Vireo gilvus
Philadelphia Vireo Rare Canopy Migratory Transient No confirmatory sighting; Vireo philadelphicus
Red-eyed Vireo Common Canopy Breeder Vireo olivaceus

Jays, Crows, Mapies, and Ravens

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Blue Jay Abundant Open areas Breeder Cyanocitta cristata
American Crow Abundant Open areas Breeder Corvus brachyrhynchos
Fish Crow Rare   Unknown Corvus ossifragus
Common Raven Occasional Open areas Unknown Corvus corax


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Horned Lark Occcasional Open areas Unknown Eremophila alpestris

Swallows and Martins

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Purple Martin Occasional Open areas Unknown Progne subis
Tree Swallow Rare   Breeder Tachycineta bicolor
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Rare Open areas Breeder Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Barn Swallow Common Open areas Breeder Hirundo rustica

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Carolina Chickadee Abundant Open areas Breeder Poecile carolinensis
Black-capped Chickadee Occasional Open areas Winter resident Poecile atricapillus
Tufted Titmouse Abundant Understory Breeder Baeolophus bicolor


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sittidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Red-breasted Nuthatch Occasional Canopy Breeder Sitta canadensis
White-breasted Nuthatch Common Canopy Breeder Poecile carolinensis


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Brown Creeper Rare Understory breeder Certhia americana


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Carolina Wren Rare Understory Breeder Thryothorus ludovicianus
House Wren Common Open areas Breeder Troglodytes aedon
Winter Wren Occasional Understory Winter resident Troglodytes hiemalis
Marsh Wren Rare     No confirmatory sighting; Cistothorus palustris


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Golden-crowned Kinglet Occasional Open areas Resident Regulus satrapa
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Uncommon C Migratory Regulus calendula


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Polioptilidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Common Canopy Breeder Polioptila caerulea


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Eastern Bluebird Common Open areas Breeder Sialia sialis
Veery Occasional Canopy Migratory Catharus fuscescens
Gray-cheeked Thrush Rare Canopy Breeder No confirmatory sighting; Catharus minimus
Swainson’s Thrush Occasional Understory Migratory Catharus ustulatus
Hermit Thrush Occasional Understory Breeder Catharus guttatus
Wood Thrush Abundant Understory Breeder Hylocichla mustelina
American Robin Abundant Understory Breeder Turdus migratorius

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Mimidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Gray Catbird Common Open areas Breeder Dumetella carolinensis
Northern Mockingbird Common Understory Breeder Mimus polyglottos
Brown Thrasher Rare Open areas Breeder Toxostoma rufum


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
European Starling Abundant Open areas Breeder Sturnus vulgaris


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Bombycillidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Cedar Waxwing Uncommon   breeder Bombycilla cedrorum

Wood Warblers

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Parulidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Blue-winged Warbler Uncommon Open areas Breeder Vermivora cyanoptera
Tennessee Warbler Occasional Open areas Migratory Transient Oreothlypis peregrina
Orange-crowned Warbler Occasional   Migratory Oreothlypis celata
Nashville Warbler Occasional Canopy Migratory Transient Oreothlypis ruficapilla
Northern Parula Rare Canopy Breeder Setophaga americana
Yellow Warbler Rare Open areas Breeder Setophaga petechia
Chestnut-sided Warbler Occasional Understory Breeder Setophaga pensylvanica
Magnolia Warbler Rare Canopy Migratory Transient Setophaga magnolia
Cape May Warbler Occasional Open areas Migratory Transient Setophaga tigrina
Black-throated Blue Warbler Rare Understory Migratory Setophaga caerulescens
Yellow-rumped Warbler Common Canopy Migratory Transient Setophaga coronata
Black-throated Green Warbler Rare Canopy Breeder Setophaga virens
Blackburnian Warbler Occasional Canopy Migratory Transient Setophaga fusca
Pine Warbler Occasional Canopy Breeder Setophaga pinus
Prairie Warbler Occasional Open areas Breeder Setophaga discolor
Palm Warbler Occasional Understory Migratory Transient Setophaga palmarum
Bay-breasted Warbler Uncommon Understory Migratory Transient Setophaga castanea
Blackpoll Warbler Rare Understory Migratory Transient Setophaga striata
Cerulean Warbler Occasional Understory Migratory Setophaga cerulea
Hooded Warbler Occasional Understory Breeder Setophaga citrina
American Redstart Rare Open areas Breeder Setophaga ruticilla
Black-and-white Warbler Rare Understory Breeder Mniotilta varia
Worm-eating Warbler Occasional Canopy Unknown Helmitheros vermivorus
Ovenbird Rare Understory Breeder Seiurus aurocapilla
Northern Waterthrush Rare Understory Migratory Transient No confirmatory sighting; Parkesia noveboracensis
Louisiana Waterthrush Occasional Understory Breeder Parkesia motacilla
Connecticut Warbler       Oporornis agilis
Kentucky Warbler Occasional Understory Breeder Geothlypis formosa
Common Yellowthroat Rare Open areas Breeder Geothlypis trichas
Wilson’s Warbler Occasional Understory Migratory Transient Cardellina pusilla
Canada Warbler Occasional Understory Migratory Transient Cardellina canadensis

American Sparrows, Towees, and Juncos

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Eastern Towhee Common Open areas Breeder Pipilo erythrophthalmus; listed as rufous-sided
American Tree Sparrow Occasional Open areas Migratory Spizella arborea
Chipping Sparrow Uncommon Open areas Breeder OSpizella passerina
Field Sparrow Common Open areas breeder Spizella pusilla
Vesper Sparrow Occasional Understory Breeder Pooecetes gramineus
Savannah Sparrow Occasional Open areas Breeder Passerculus sandwichensis
Grasshopper Sparrow Rare Open areas Breeder Ammodramus savannarum
Henslow’s Sparrow Occasional Open areas Unknown Ammodramus henslowii
Fox Sparrow Occasional Open areas Migratory Passerella iliaca
Song Sparrow Common Open areas breeder Melospiza melodia
Lincoln’s Sparrow Occasional Open areas Migratory Transient Melospiza lincolnii
Swamp Sparrow Occasional Open areas breeder Melospiza georgiana
White-throated Sparrow Uncommon Understory Winter resident Zonotrichia albicollis
White-crowned Sparrow Occasional Open areas Migratory Zonotrichia leucophrys
Dark-eyed Junco Abundant Open areas Resident Junco hyemalis

Cardinals, Grosbeaks, and allies

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cardinalidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Scarlet Tanager Uncommon Canopy Breeder Piranga olivacea
Northern Cardinal Abundant Open areas Breeder Cardinalis cardinalis
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Occasional Open areas breeder Pheucticus ludovicianus
Indigo Bunting Uncommon Open areas Breeder Passerina cyanea

Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Icteridae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Bobolink Uncommon Open areas Breeder Dolichonyx oryzivorus
Red-winged Blackbird Abundant Open areas Breeder Agelaius phoeniceus
Eastern Meadowlark Common Open areas Breeder Sturnella magna
Rusty Blackbird Rare Understory MIgratory Euphagus carolinus
Common Grackle Common Open areas Breeder Quiscalus quiscula
Brown-headed Cowbird Common Open areas Breeder Molothrus ater
Orchard Oriole Occasional Open areas Breeder Icterus spurius
Baltimore Oriole Uncommon Canopy Breeder Icterus galbula


Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
Purple Finch Rare Open areas Resident Haemorhous purpureus
House Finch Common Open areas Breeder Haemorhous mexicanus
Pine Siskin Occasional Canopy Winter resident Spinus pinus
American Goldfinch Common Open areas Breeder Spinus tristis

Old World Sparrows

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae
Abundance Habitat Seasonality Comments
House Sparrow Common Open areas Breeder Passer domesticus